Here are some of the items I think are necessary when training a dog:
*A strong leash, even though a well trained dog (regardless of size) can be walked on a piece of yarn, when you start your training the leash is necessary. A sharp tug and firm command is the best way to teach your dog to heel, lie down and sit.
*Beds are necessary as a place to teach your dog to lie down and stay, don’t use the bed as a punishment for any reason. It should be a safe happy place for him.
*Collars are important training tools, a collar should be snug, but loose enough to get four fingers between the dogs neck and the collar.
If you are a small person trying to train a large dog, you may want to try a pincher collar, even though they look cruel they are not, what they do is pinch the dogs skin until he stops tugging on the leash.
This is really necessary when training a large breed to heel. I don’t believe in using choke chains, they can damage the dogs throat and cause multiple problems later.
*A rattle is a home made training tool for your dog; it is simply 20 pennies in an aluminum can with the top taped shut. Use this to distract a dogs attention from what he is doing wrong, and put his attention on you.
A vigorous shaking makes a lot of noise which startles the dog and stops him in his tracks. You can use these for several things, from breaking him of taking food off the counter, (just put a few of them on a towel hanging over the edge of the counter), when he goes to get food off the counter, he will knock the rattle off.
*Treats, these are training tools for your dog, when he does something on command, he should receive a reward, praise is the best, but there should also be an occasional treat added in.
*A kennel or box big enough for him to lie down comfortably in.
These are the basic needs for training a dog, and will go a long way in teaching him the basics.